APPALOOSA
      HILLSIDE 
      FARM   

Leopard Complex(LP) and Pattern 1(PATN1)

The effects of LP (Leopard Complex)
and  Pattern 1(PATN1) can be read about on this page:

Leopard Complex & Congenital Stationary Night Blindness

ORDER TEST | PRICE LIST
Allow 2-6 business days for coat color results

A popular source of symmetric white patterning called Leopard Complex (LP), also known as Appaloosa spotting, is characteristic of the Appaloosa and Pony of the Americas breeds. Other breeds around the world that exhibit this pattern include the British Spotted Pony, Knabstrupper, Noriker, and Tannu Tuva Pony. Leopard Complex is also found at a lower frequency in the American Miniature Horse and Spanish Mustang breeds. The expression of Leopard Complex includes several components: mottled skin around the muzzle, anus, genitalia, and eyes, and progressive roaning of pigmented coat areas with age. White spotting may also be present, with pigmented leopard spots tending to occur on the white spotting background of heterozygous horses. . The mutation is an incomplete dominant and expression of Leopard Complex is variable ranging from absent to extreme white patterning. The amount of white present is not dosage related, such that homozygous horses can have minimal expression of white patterning. The variability in the amount of white on leopard complex patterned horses is controlled by other genes, one of which is PATN1. Horses that are homozygous for Leopard Complex also have Congenital Stationary Night Blindness (CSNB) which is the inability to see in low to no-light conditions.

The genetic basis for Leopard Complex has been identified. The VGL is licensed to offer the test for the specific mutation. Results are reported as:

N/N

no copies of Leopard Complex (Appaloosa) spotting.

N/LP

1 copy of Leopard Complex mutation, 50% of offspring will inherit the Leopard gene*.

LP/LP

2 copies of Leopard Complex mutation, all offspring will inherit the Leopard gene*. Horse has congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB).

* Expression of Leopard Complex is variable and white patterning may not be present in all horses that inherit the gene.

Reference:Bellone, R.R., Holl, H., Setaluri, V., Devi, S., Maddodi, N., Archer, S., Sandmeyer, L., Ludwig, A., Foerster, D., Pruvost, M., Reissmann, M., Bortfeldt, R., Adelson, D.L., Lim, S.L., Nelson, J., Haase, B., Engensteiner, M., Leeb, T., Forsyth, G., Mienaltowski, M.J., Mahadevan, P., Hofreiter, M., Paijmans, J. L.A., Gonzalez-Fortes, G., Grahn, B., & Brooks, S.A. (2013) Evidence for a Retroviral Insertion in TRPM1 as the Cause of Congenital Stationary Night Blindness and Leopard Complex Spotting in the Horse. PLoS ONE 8(10):e78280 (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078280).

 

Veterinary Genetics Laboratory, Tel 530-752-2211, Email VGL

Copyright ©2013 The Regents of the University of California. All Rights Reserved

Appaloosa Pattern-1 (PATN1)

ORDER TEST | PRICE LIST
Allow 2-6 business days for coat color results

Leopard Complex spotting, a highly variable group of white spotting patterns, is controlled by the LP gene. LP determines if a horse will have a leopard complex spotting pattern while other genes determine the extent (or amount) of white. One of these genes has been identified and has been termed Pattern-1 for first pattern gene or PATN1 for short. A mutation in PATN1 was identified that is associated with increased amount of white in in LP horses. In horses that are heterozygous for LP (LP/N), presence of the PATN1 mutation most often produces a leopard or a near–leopard pattern. In horses that are homozygous for LP (LP/LP), the PATN1 mutation most often results in a few-spot or near few spot pattern. The PATN1 mutation is present in breeds with LP, including the Appaloosa, British Spotted Pony, American Miniature Horse and Knabstrupper, among others. The PATN1 mutation has been found in other breeds but may not have an effect on phenotype in the absence of LP. Testing for both LP and PATN1 is recommended for breeders interested in producing Leopard Complex-spotted horses and ponies.

The genetic basis for PATN1 has been identified. The VGL offers the test for the associated mutation. Results are reported as:

N/N

no copies of PATN1*

N/PATN1

1 copy of PATN1, 50% of offspring will inherit the modifier mutation.*

PATN1/PATN1

2 copies of PATN1 mutation, all offspring will inherit the PATN1 mutation*.

*In order for high levels of white spotting to be visible on horses that inherit PATN1, LP must also be present

References:

http://www.appaloosaproject.co/

Holl, H., Brooks, S.A., Archer, S., & Bellone, R.  Whole transcriptome analysis of a pattern modifier (PATN1) of Leopard Complex spotting (LP). Poster presented by H. Holl at the Plant and Animal Genome Conference XX, San Diego, CA, January 2012

Veterinary Genetics Laboratory, Tel 530-752-2211, Email VGL

Copyright ©2013 The Regents of the University of California. All Rights Reserved



The Veterinary Genetics Laboratory (VGL) provides animal parentage verification, identification, forensics services, genetic diagnostics and genetic disease research as a self-supporting unit of the School of Veterinary Medicine at the University of California, Davis. VGL is internationally recognized as a pioneer and expert in DNA-based animal testing. VGL also offers an extensive animal forensic services program, diagnostic tests for genetic diseases, and support for genetic research in domestic species, primates and wildlife.
Website Builder